Despite the fact that weevils are only subclass of insects, their family is the largest in the animal world and employs more than 50 000 species, and, apparently, most of the species of weevils have not yet discovered or described by scientists.
Weevils are very different from each other in shape, size and color. Usually these small insects look like a blade, at the end of which is the mouth with proboscises. Females use proboscises for drilling holes, in which it will lay eggs.
Weevils were found in the grain stored in ancient tombs in Egypt. Today they in a short time can cause the destruction of most of the stocks of cereals, flour and pasta.
Close to man in the apartment is usually settled granary weevil. It is a small beetle up to 4 mm, has a dark brown color with underdeveloped wings. The insect can not fly, but it does not prevent its rapid resettlement. Together with the cereals weevils can spread around the world, and become one of the major household pests.
This beetle has spread around the world, as say zoologists – this insect is cosmopolitan. it is one of the most dangerous pests of grain reserves. Most species inhabits the tropical regions of the Earth.
Favorite place of the habitat of weevil is bins with grain wheat, rye, corn, barley. You can find there great nest locations. It lives in the granaries and warehouses, where causes great harm to the stored reserves. Settling at the house weevils prefer wheat, barley, rye, rice, corn and buckwheat. It may settle in the pasta and caked flour. If there are any weevils in the croup, it is not desirable to use in food, it is better to get rid of these products and to decide how to get rid of the weevils in the kitchen.
Harm to human
Weevils are considered as harmful not only because of the inordinate appetite or large numbers of individuals in the colony. All the matter is that they damage the vital and most tender parts of agricultural plants. Thus, the plant can only die.
Granary weevil, which destroys the various crops, is one of the most harmful members of their family. A rice weevil destroys not only rice, but also other dry food. The most dangerous enemy of the cotton cultures is the boll weevil that can destroy the entire crop.
The main pests, “living” in the croup, which can be seen with the naked eye: red, granary and rice weevils. The quality of heavily damaged by pests products can really deteriorate, that they become unsuitable for use in food, and even for fodder purposes. Weevils transmit to products toxic properties, which can cause severe allergic reactions and even disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes, why appear such insects in the houses
Most often weevils emerge in homes with because of cereals, which we buy in stores. If infected cereals have lain in warehouse for several months, then you have brought them into your home, you can be sure that soon you will have small pests. It should be noted that the larvae of these insects is practically impossible to discern.
If you have good eyesight, you can try to see them. Externally, the larvae of these pests are very similar to the semolina, which has few grains stuck together. In the flour and small grains they become almost invisible, as larvae are mainly transparent. In buckwheat, as well as dried fruits and nuts, the detection process will be much easier.
Adult weevils have sharp and strong teeth. They are able to gnaw through any packages with cereals, and to settle in them. After this, the cereals become unsuitable for cooking food. In such a way weevils may occur in the house due to infection of products.
Period of activity of the pests
Greatest activity of the pest is observed in the sunny and warm weather. After the winter period, increase the activity of breeding and malicious.
In nature, as a rule, weevils start its activity in the early spring, when the intensity gnaw the seedlings of winter crops, and after – are moving to the beet, tobacco, corn, sunflower and spring crops.
Weevil usually gives 3-4 generations per year. Adult beetles live from 7 months to 2 years. The female lays up to 300 eggs. For each of them it gnaws cave in a separate seed, and closes the hole with specifically secretions after the laying. So, life cycle is the next: eggs-larva-pupa-adult.
After 6-12 days larva appears out of the egg, which grows within grain, gnawing out it from inside almost completely. In the same cavity larvae pupates. Then the beetle gnaws through the membrane and out of grain. Thus, the egg, larva and pupa of weevil constantly are inside occluded grain and people can only see adult insects.
Terms of development of larvae in every stage depends on external factors: mainly on the temperature and humidity of the air and grain. Also it depends on the nutritional value of the grain. After finishing the development, the larvae transform into white, almost transparent pupae with length of 3 – 5 mm. After 15 – 40 days from the pupa appears beetle. It gnaws a hole in the shell of the grain and comes out.
Methods of dealing
If you find in the apartment the pest, you should immediately decide how to get rid of the weevils. It is quite feasible. There are a number of simple proven ways to control the weevil. Methods of controlling these pests are based on the characteristics of their life and reproduction. If you find in the kitchen at least one beetle-weevil, you must check all the cereals, flour, pasta, coffee, cocoa and tea, which are stored in tables and cabinets, for the presence of pests. You should throw out all contaminated products, as excrements of these insects and their larvae are carcinogenic.
Behavior of weevils shows, that they are heat-loving insects. If the temperature drops to +5, beetles fade (fall into a stupor), and if it is below zero – all the eggs, larvae and adults will die within a month. So, the cold can be used as a means of struggle against this pest. If you find weevils, all products should be placed on two or three days in the freezer for quarantine.
Methods of dealing with this pest include the warming up foods. Weevils die within two days at temperature + 40, and with an increase up to + 50 – die within 6 hours. So you can warm up cereals in the oven at temperature +50, +60 degrees.
- After quarantine products should be stored in sealed glass or plastic containers, which the beetles can not gnaw through.
- You can try to fight weevils using garlic. You need to put peeled (not sliced) garlic in a container, where you hold the cereals.
- Cabinets where you store dry foods should be washed with warm soapy water or with soda and then with a weak solution of vinegar. Then you need well dry and ventilate the cabinets.
- On the shelves in the closet you need to put a bay leaf or dried lavender flowers.
- Try not to make large reserves, buy the products as needed.