Mosquitoes are the group of insects Nematocera. This small insect has a slender, cylindrical body, thin transparent wings, which in resting position fold over the abdomen. On the head of mosquito is long and thin piercing proboscis, about 3-4 times longer than the head. The abdomen consists of 10 segments. The thorax is wider than abdomen. Paws on the end have a few claws.
In appearance, most mosquitoes are similar, but they could be different sizes and colors. The males feed on nectar and differ from females by bushy mustache. Females feed on the blood.
Not all the mosquitoes are gray, some of them are colored more interestingly, for example, among the mosquito-crane flies are found orange, yellow, black and brown. Some of mosquitoes are wingless. Their wings have been lost during evolution. Some of them are fluffy, even their wings.
Favorite habitats of mosquitoes are places of high humidity and ponds with shallow standing water. Within these places they develop and lay eggs. However, mosquitoes are also able to develop and increase their numbers in many other places, even if it is not their natural habitat. Many species of mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water or poorly flowing bodies of water on the surface of the water, attaching them to floating objects. Some of mosquito larvae are active in fleeting water, such as river or creek. Their habitats can be in standing bodies of water with contaminated water or puddles. In urban settings, the optimal environment for the development of mosquito larvae is damp and waterlogged basement. Adults are the inhabitants of the air environment.
The most suitable environment for the growth and survival of mosquitoes is a warm and humid climate. Infestations can easily occur in forested areas. But there are some species that are capable for development and existance in cold temperature conditions. There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes throughout the world; currently 176 species are recognized in the United States.
Harm to human
Mosquitoes are bloodsucking insects, the males eat plant juices and water, females have mixed food – they feed on the blood of humans and animals, and in their absence – plant juices. By the bite of female mosquitoes, they pierce the skin by proboscis and inject the annoying saliva into the wound, that leads to the appearance of itching, burning, redness and fever in the places of stings. Consequently, when we have a massive attack of mosquitoes we are deprived of normal rest and sleep.
Although mosquito bites are not particularly painful, they can be dangerous to human health. Saliva contains anticoagulants which prevent blood clotting. Some people are less sensitive to saliva by repeated bites of mosquitoes, while others may have a severe allergic reaction. The symptoms of allergies include the itching, swelling and asthma. Mosquitoes also carry such diseases as yellow fever, dengue, malaria and encephalitis, which can be transmitted from an infected person to healthy.
Depending on the nature of the harm caused by mosquitoes, they can be divided into malarial mosquitoes Anopheles (transmit malaria parasites) and no malarial, but also are distributors of such serious diseases as Japanese encephalitis, Karelian fever, West Nile fever, dengue fever and others highly dangerous diseases. Annually, because of the mosquito bites, with which are transmitted variety of infections in the world are killed 725,000 persons.
Causes, why appear such insects in the houses
Reasons for the appearance of mosquitoes in the house are not too much. Mosquitoes get into the house either from the window – either from the entrance or through the ventilation pipes. If it is summer – which mosquitoes certainly get into the house from the outside, they are attracted by lights in the windows.
In the autumn mosquitoes appear in the apartments from damp basements. Mosquitoes lay their larvae there under favorable conditions for themselves. So, if in the home is dry basement, mosquitoes will not appear. Also mosquitoes appear in homes, even in winter. In this case, they appear from the basement on ventilation, so it is necessary to put a grid on the ventilation openings.
Period of activity of the pests
The behavior of mosquitoes is the subject of numerous studies. High humidity, rainy season, resistant hot weather and an abundance of fast-flowing rivers, contributed to the high activity of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are most active during warm time. In this period they are particularly aggressive.
During the day adult mosquitoes hide in the house: on the back wall of furniture, clothing, curtains, in a cool and dark corners, where they fly out at nightfall in order to bite. For this you must carefully examine the potential mosquito shelter and clean up clothes in the closet, which must be carefully closed. Mosquitoes begin to bite in the early evening, and become active at midnight. They are most active in the early morning between 5 – 9.30.
Development of mosquitoes occurs with complete metamorphosis, their life cycle looks next: egg – larva – pupa – imago (adult). All phases of development of mosquitoes are aqueous. Females lay eggs in water. Breeding places of mosquitoes are a variety of water bodies – standing, flowing, permanent and temporary. Eggs of mosquitoes are resistant and successfully survive the wind and rain. Per one time, the female lays 120-150 eggs. Duration of egg in colony development is determined by temperature and of water. It is between 40 hours up to 8 days. Development of each larval stage takes an average of 1.5 – 3 days.
Larvae and pupae can not survive without water. If the source of water evaporates before the pupae go into the adult phase, they all die. Life expectancy of females in the summer time is 1 – 1.5 months.
Methods of dealing
There are so many means in order to combat against mosquitoes. These are all kinds of insect repellents and fumigators and smoking spiral. In addition, there is a fairly wide range of electronic repellents and “destroyers” to help reduce the number of mosquitoes. Unfortunately, all of these means against mosquitoes only help for a short period, because they are intended for local action on the flying adult individuals.
You can use:
- Repellents – a chemical means against mosquitoes, which are made on the basis of substances, “allegedly scaring” mosquitoes. The most popular are sprays, lotions and creams.
- Fumigators are more effective than insect repellents, they are specially designed devices that help you to get rid of mosquitoes without masking you, but really scaring off them.
- Ultrasonic mosquito repeller – it is more modern and technological devices for mosquito control, which recognized as one of the safest and most effective means to control mosquitoes.
- Destroyers of insects of two types: the ultraviolet and the gas.
To get rid of mosquitoes, it is necessary not only to destroy all of adult individuals that live around the home and in it, but also to detect and handle absolutely all breeding places of mosquitoes – large puddles, ditches, marshes, shores of reservoirs, flooded basements and attics. Thus, in order to completely remove the mosquitoes, it is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection of the surrounding areas for the presence of the nest locations and to process them in case of detection. Also you should handle ceilings, walls and vertical surfaces.
The truest decision in the fight against mosquitoes is to warn them bite. Here are some suggestions on this subject:
- Not in any way do not open the window with the lights on and the absence of insect screen.
- Try to dress in the lighter things, most often dark colors of clothing attract mosquitoes.
- Do not walk for a long time near the water. This is where mosquitoes lay their eggs.
- But if this is not enough, and the mosquitoes still snuck into your apartment, here can get help from houseplants. According to the research the best copes with the task geranium (Pelargonium), repelling mosquitoes by releasing odorous essential oils.
- Try to close tightly window leaves by nylon mesh or gauze.