There are more than 4500 species of cockroaches on the planet. Cockroaches are rather ancient creatures, which lived even in the Paleozoic, the hundreds of millions years ago. These flat and highly motile creatures adore moisture and heat. For habitat they have chosen human dwelling, tying their lifestyle to ours. The body of the cockroaches is flat and oval, from 4 mm to 9.5 cm in length. Insects have well adapted to the parasitic lifestyle organism: because of flattened form can penetrate into the small cracks, several pairs of legs allow them to run quite promptly, and they can exist almost a month without food and without water for about a week, in addition, they are unusually prolific.
It is difficult even to say what the cockroaches are afraid of. In fact these insects lived through the dinosaurs still has not changed their appearance, but in the contemporary world they can survive at the level of radiation exposure, ten times more than human is able to withstand.
Even though cockroaches are associated with mud and wastes, they can also appear in the apartment where clean. If you see even one cockroach indoors it means, that somewhere nearby lives all its family, because they live only in colony. At the same time every individual reserves the smelling trace for others to find it easily.
In apartment cockroaches prefer to live close to water sources (leaking pipes, sewage sludge) and food. The perfect place to combine both conditions is the kitchen. However, in the afternoon in the kitchen insect is rare to find (except for absolutely dirty dwellings), from which it follows a logical conclusion that cockroaches are afraid of light. The main habitats of cockroaches are premises nutrition units, kitchens, bathrooms, toilets, cabinets for storage of products and clothing.
Cockroaches are – thermophilic insects, their optimum is in the range +8, +28 ° C. At temperature + 1 ° C stops their multiplication, and at 0 ° C they die. Cockroaches are a big problem almost for 100 million people of America. According to the Californian researchers, these harmful insects live in 80% of apartments and 43% of private homes. Approximately 20% of Americans see cockroaches every day.
Harm to human
At first glance it may seem that cockroaches are harmless and not dangerous small insects which do not harm other than food spoilage.That’s not true. These insects are able to bring into your home a much bigger problems than you can imagine.
As a rule, adverse effects of cockroaches expressed as follows:
- cockroaches spoil products, contaminate food with their poisonous excrements, dangerous to human health;
- they damage electrical and household appliances;
- cockroaches are dangerous to children;
- excrements of cockroaches can cause various diseases of infectious nature.
Biological hazards of cockroaches are scientifically proven. In general, it is worth noting that cockroaches are causing significant damage, and therefore their destruction is a priority, if in your house or apartment appeared these small critters. It is known that cockroaches are carriers of more than 50 types of pathogenic microbes for humans (hepatitis, tuberculosis and various intestinal infections).
Is also worth noting, that the particles which separated from the body of cockroaches mixed with dust and may lead to the emergence of various allergic reactions. Based on statistics, the doctors argue that 60 percent of Americans, who are sick with asthma and live in megalopolises, have an allergic reaction to cockroaches. Also they can bite humans if they do not have food or water. Bite can cause irritation, skin lesions and edemas.
Causes, why appear such insects in the houses
It is clear, that cockroaches appear in the apartment only for a reason. If they invaded or even more so – actively multiply, so in the room were created favorable conditions for them – dirt and poor sanitation. Therefore if cockroaches live in the room constantly then you need to understand how to eliminate the cause. Usually neighboring apartments are the sources of infection. Therefore it is necessary to pass as a minimum – apartments, which have adjacent walls, as a maximum – the whole house.
In the apartment it is easier to get through the ventilation, heating and water pipes, and order to get into the house, they will have to overcome a large plot of open area, which do not like cockroaches. A favorite way of resettlement these nasty insects is travel in bags and things from one house to another. Not all cockroaches got in dwelling in such a way are able to create large colony, but if in the package was a pregnant female – the owners will have hard times.
These are not the only ways, which cockroaches use – they are very resourceful in method of travel. For example, they could move into another apartment by the telephone wires.
Most of all they are attracted by the presence of available food: leftovers on the desk, dirty dishes, greasy sink, trash bin without a plastic bag, grease-spattered tiles near the stove. They need the sources of water – it could be drops from the faulty faucet, flower pots, which the hostess watered regularly, dampness from the old plumbing.
What eat cockroaches:
- Crumbs in the kitchen
- Dry cereals
- Wallpaper paste
- Sweet food products
- Decaying organic matter
- Household or organic glue
- Fruits, vegetables and plant fiber food
- Nylon clothing
- Starch on clothing, book covers.
Even in relatively clean environment cockroaches manage to multiply, but in this case their colonies are far fewer than in the apartments of idlers.
Period of activity of the pests
Cockroaches are crepuscular insects, they are active at night, during the day they creep into the cracks and various concealed places, hide in crevices of walls, kitchen furniture, under baseboards, heating pipes. At night cockroaches orient themselves in space by means of long antennae. The insects pave the whole “tracks” in the premises, producing odorous pheromones and marking the surface of objects.
They know perfectly well where it is necessary to escape from the avenging right hand of slipper or aerosol. Unfortunately cockroach has wonderful ability to survive: runs fast, incredibly nimble, rapidly multiplies and is able to adapt to the multicomponent poisons.
Cockroaches do not lay eggs or pupae, they carry their posterity in the abdomen, and then 2-3 months appear tiny, live cockroaches. Pregnant female has bloated abdomen. Each female cockroach could for one time produce 40 new individuals; the exact number depends on the number of cockroaches in the pouch, which bears female. During all life the female lays three or four egg capsules. At the same time, keep in mind, that to find cockroaches larvae is not easy and in the homes cockroaches multiply year round.
The duration of development from the egg to the adult insect is dependent on environmental conditions and the type of cockroaches (rusty – 50-180 days, black from 50-180 days to 4 years). The larvae in their appearance remind adult individuals, but they are wingless, molt in over their development 6-7 times. The bulk of the individuals (up to 70%) constitute larvae of all stages, the remainder is divided between adult males and females equally.
Methods of dealing
Among the traditional means of dealing with these parasites the most popular (excluding room slippers) is boric acid powder, rolled up in any food product, for example, in dough or boiled potatoes. The advantage of this method is that it is absolutely harmless to humans. A main disadvantage is that the active agent is slowly enough for the cockroaches, they should get in touch directly with the means.
One more slightly have already forgotten way to get rid of cockroaches is cooling. The method is quite effective, because they can not tolerate the cold, and specifically, the frost, but hardly anyone dares to leave the city apartment today opened in severe frost, even for the destruction of these parasites.
The other methods for scaring away the cockroaches are scents and essential oils of some plants, such as pine, eucalyptus, red elderberry. It is possible to use them in the oil burner, or distributed via the sprinkler in the kitchen. Also cockroaches are afraid smells of herbs: mint and anise. The disadvantages are that the existing cockroaches these scents are not destroyed.
For a long time, chemists have tried to determine what smells cockroaches are afraid of, and use it for industrial development. The chemical method is currently the most effective method of getting rid of various insects at home. The most common insecticides are in the form of aerosols, gels, crayons and traps with poison.
Even after complete recovery from the uninvited guests in order to prevent their new visits is necessary to observe some simple rules. Will have to close up all cracks and crevices through which nasty insects could get into the house, and handle these slots by boric acid powder or insecticidal chalk.
In addition, the air vents should have fine mesh. For the night is required to wipe dry the surface of the bath and kitchen sink, to carry out watering houseplants in the morning and not at night, to repair dripping faucets and leaking pipes.
All food products that are out of the refrigerator should be stored in tightly closed cans or sealable bagы in order to do not remain the smell of food. Lockers and trash cans should be regularly cleaned with detergent, try regularly to get rid of food waste.
For the prevention of re-infiltration of cockroaches in an apartment should be monitored closely for its clean and sanitary.
Furthermore, it is useful to do the following:
- to install grid on the air vents, or smear them from the inside with a pencil from cockroaches;
- to decompose traps from cockroaches in the dressing room;
- to apply pencil stripes at the circumference of apartment windows;
- most important – to give a good and proven chemical agent to neighbors. Only after that part of cockroaches will try to save in an already cleaned the room.