Bed bugs are wingless, bloodsucking insects of the family Cimex lectularius, which parasite humans. They have a reddish-brown color of the body, width up to 3 mm and length of about 6-8 mm. They are ectoparasite of human and warm-blooded animals and eat their blood. Bed bugs are sufficiently the unique insects. They are well characterized by parasitic way of life.
If cockroaches, ants and mole harm to humans in way, that spoil the food reserves and clothing, bed bugs encroach directly on most precious and delicate – the human body. That is why the activity of these parasites is very clearly felt by residents of apartments, houses and cottages almost immediately after the entry of insects in premises – bed bugs left on the skin explicit numerous discomfort bite marks. And these bites make bugs the most unpleasant human companions.
Bed bugs are quite frequent neighbors of our homes, from their occurrence no one can be insured. This insect lives in old buildings beneath the layers of wallpaper and in all kinds of crevices. Several decades ago, they could be met only in places with poor sanitation. Getting in favorable living environment, bed bugs begin to multiply very rapidly.
The most common habitat are furniture, cracks and crevices of walls, ceilings and floors, the space behind baseboards and also holes of rodents and nests of birds. Their presence is detected by black-and-white excrements in the form of stains and odor. Today, the problem is exacerbated day by day and these insects can be found in the most ordinary flats.
Harm to human
Overall, today has not yet been registered any case in which the bed bug infects human by bacterial or viral infection. Despite this fact, that the bed bugs are vectors of pathogens of many diseases, none of these microorganisms and viruses is not transmitted through the bite. Nevertheless, the bite of bed bug could be fraught with certain troubles:
- Allergic reaction to the bite. According to statistics, allergy on the bites of bed bugs in those or others manifestations is observed in 80% of people. Such manifestations could be the emergence of papules, extensive redness, itching and pain, extremely rare – even anaphylactic shock.
- Inflammation and damage to the skin, also pustules, occurring at combing places of stings. Through such a micro-scratches easily penetrate the human disease pathogens.
- Iron deficiency anemia in children. This is a very rare consequence of bed bug bite. It occurs when a child gets very large number of biting parasites, and the action of saliva leads to some changes in the blood.
According to statistics, 70% of victims of bed bugs do not feel their bites. Precisely because of this, parasites actively capture the cities – in many homes people do not even know that at night they have contact with the insects.
Bites looks sufficiently characteristic: they are arranged in a line in four or five red dots. Of all blood-sucking insects the bugs are the only ones who suck the blood for saturation from several wounds.
Causes, why appear such insects in the houses
Basically the bugs are brought to home, because they can not travel for long distances. The subject of transportation could be clothes, personal items, even furniture, which you just bought at the store. But happens also such, that the cause is a violation of the sanitary condition of the house. In such cases, the premises need not only disinfestation from bed bugs, but deratization and disinfection.
Furniture, especially beds and mattresses are the most frequent place of congestion of bed bugs and their eggs, so should be thoroughly inspected these items before you transport them in your house or apartment. Since the bed bugs are able to live up to 6 months without food, they can just wait. Is possible movement of bed bugs between neighboring apartments, if you are in the building with high number of home bed bugs.
Period of activity of the pests
Bed bugs are especially nocturnal insects. Force them to move during the day may just destruction of places their accumulation or action of any strong medication. The bugs are the most active in the early morning hours, from 3 to 6 o’clock in the morning.
Thanks to mobility and a sufficiently high running speed bugs in a few minutes could reach from any corner of the apartment to the bed, spending 20-25 minutes on food and quickly coming back into the shelter. In those places, where the bugs wait out the day, females lay eggs. Over time in the most convenient for insects shelters are formed large accumulations parasites, which are also called nests.
Egg – larva – the adult – a typical cycle of development of the bed bugs. Under favorable conditions, the female lays from 1 to 12 eggs per day, and during its existence – 250-500 eggs. In warm areas bed bug could reproduce all year round, and at 10 ° C they could starve to five months, the larvae – up to one year.
These insects poorly tolerate high and low temperatures: at -17 ° C they live day and at +45 ° C – die within 45 minutes. Bed bugs live for about 15 months. In order to evolve from egg into the adult, larva needs 30-40 days. If the conditions are not especially favorable for this process larva needs 80-100 days.
Methods of dealing
Against these parasites has been developed many ways of dealing, from home remedies to powerful chemical insecticides. You should use the following ways of dealing with them:
- Destruction of bed bug by chemical insecticides. This method is considered as the most effective in the use of modern proven preparations. Most of these preparations are harmless to humans and pets, and their proper use could allow to get rid of bed bugs in one day.
- The fight against bed bugs by temperature methods is very effective, but also is rather complicated technically. For reliable disposal of bed bugs people use powerful industrial dryers or heat generators and low temperature outside.
- Physical methods of dealing are using of a conventional vacuum cleaner, but they do not provide special effect.
Today is also developing biological control of bed bugs. There are parasites that lay their eggs in the larval body of bed bug. In the future, such insect destroy bug. Most recently was opened mold fungus that attacks settlements of bed bugs and leads to their death. You can struggle with bed bugs independently or can call for this special sanitary service.
Prevention aims to avoid the emergence and reproduction of bed bugs, including daily cleaning of premises homes, systematic overhaul, compulsory disinfection handling of furniture, mattresses, bedding and other items, which you transport from infected apartments, when you move to new ones.
In order to avoid the appearance of the ants in your house, you need to follow the some rules:
- If you suspect that you have any bed bugs in your home or apartment, you should carefully check first your mattress. Best of all do this with a bright flashlight to search for bed bugs or their dark spots of droppings in the seams and tufts of mattresses.
- Bed bugs leave exoskeletons during the molting stage, which accumulate in cover places. If you have a large settlement of bed bugs, then abandoned skins or carcasses will be proof of that, and to find them is not difficult.
- In the room may also appear distinctive and unpleasant almond scent.
- To intercept bed bugs, you can use double-sided tape, it also works well. Put it on the edges of the mattress, springs and on the floor around the bed. And if you really have bed bugs, then after about a week, you should see them on the tape.